团队断裂带对员工绩效的影响:一项跨层次研究 本期目录 >>
Title: The Impact Mechanism of Team Faultlines on Employees′ Performance: A Hierarchical Study
作者 魏钧;董玉杰
Author(s): WEI Jun; DONG Yu-jie
摘要: 本文从直接效应和调节机制两个方面全面探讨了团队断裂带对员工绩效的跨层次影响机制。通过对新疆某制造企业36个团队的573名雇员的调研数据分析,运用多层线性模型,进行了实证检验。结果表明,团队断裂带对员工绩效水平的消极影响受到交易型领导的负向调节;团队断裂带对社会网络中心度和员工绩效关系起到跨层次正向调节作用。本研究证明了团队断裂对员工绩效存在双重作用机制。该结论丰富了团队断裂带的理论研究,同时对多样性团队的管理有着重要的启示。
Abstract: In recent years, as team members’ composition becomes more diverse, a team is usually divided into several subgroups with internal homogeneity and being high heterogeneous from each other under the mutual effects of the multiple characteristics of members. The hypothetical dividing lines between subgroups are called as “faultlines”. As geological faultlines will easily trigger natural disasters such as earthquakes, if without being managed effectively, team faultlines may easily cause “ingroup preference” and “intergroup prejudice” which will hinder communication between subgroups, and even intensify the conflict. Then the managers will meet a new challenge, which is, how to manage team faultlines and apply it effectively. Currently, the related researches mainly focus on the influence of team faultlines on team performance, but few on employees' behavior and performance. In order to complete certain tasks, an employee usually needs to cooperate with other employees, as well as gains the informational and emotional support from them, and thus, his or her performance is easily influenced by the relationship among team members and the team composition. As the increased attention given on the employees' performance management and the development of hierarchical analysis, it is necessary and feasible for us to explore the influence of team faultlines on employees′ performance. The research aims to comprehensively discuss the hierarchical effect of team faultlines on employees′ performance. Specifically, the authors try to answer the following key questions: How do team faultlines influence employees' performance? In different contexts, how would this influence change? Whether or not team faultlines, as a situational variable, would hierarchically moderate the influence of individual-level factors on employees′ performance? This research selected a sample composed of 35 work teams including 559 employees in a large manufacturing enterprise located in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The authors collected the data, including team faultlines strength, leadership style, employees′ performance and employee's social network, through a survey targeted towards the team leaders and members. Having used the hierarchical linear model (HLM), the empirical research shows that transactional leadership negatively moderates the relationship between team faultlines and employees′ performance. The negative influence of team faultlines on employees′ performance is stronger for team leader with high transactional leadership. Team faultlines positively moderates the relationships between social network centrality and employees′ performance. When team faultlines are more significant, team member who is at the core of the social network will obtain higher performance. Furthermore, it is worth noting that on the contrary to our hypothesis, this research did not find a significant relationship between team faultlines and employees′ performance. We speculate that this stems from cultural factors. Under a cultural background in which the Chinese core values of collectivism, differing from the western individualism, has been upheld for so many years, team faultlines are not so easily to cause differences and contradictions within a team, and thus the damage to the employees′ performance would not be so strong. This research expands the hierarchical research of team faultlines, enriches the model of influencing factors on employee performance, and promotes the development of related theory. Furthermore, it also suggests some practical implications about how to manage employees′ performance in those diversified teams. First, the leader who plays an important role in the team should not use transactional leadership style to weaken the differentiation of team faultlines. Secondly, the managers in a diversified team should adjust the structure of the social network within the team, which can be used in its potential to promote the team communication.
关键词: 团队断裂带;员工绩效;交易型领导;网络中心度;多层线性模型
Keywords: team faultlines; employees′ performance; transactional leadership; network centrality; hierarchical liner models
基金项目: 教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划;国家自然科学基金;中央高校基本科研业务费;国家留学基金资助项目
发表期数: 2017年 第3期
中图分类号: 文献标识码: 文章编号:
参考文献/References:

[1] Lau D C, Murnighan JK. Demographic diversity and faultlines: The compositional dynamics of organizational groups [J]. Academy of Management Review, 1998, 23(2):325-340.

[2] 王端旭,薛会娟.多样化团队中的断裂带:形成、演化和效应研究[J].浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版),2009,39(5):122-128.

[3] 谢小云,张政晓,王唯梁. 团队背景下的子群体关系研究进展评析[J].外国经济与管理,2012,34(10):22-29.

[4] 杨国枢,余安邦.中国人的心理与行为:理念及方法篇[M].台北:桂冠图书公司,1993.

[5] 严 鸣,林迎星.知识型员工绩效影响因素研究回顾与展望[J].外国经济与管理,2006,28(11):59-65.

[6] Cronin MA, Bezrukova K, Weingart LR, et al. Subgroups within A Team: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Integration [J]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2011, 32(6):831-849.

[7] Kunze F, Bruch H. Age-based faultlines and perceived productive energy: The moderation of transformational leadership [J]. Small Group Research, 2010,41(5): 593-620.

[8] Jehn KA, Bezrukova K. The faultline activation process and the effects of activated faultlines on coalition formation, conflict, and group outcomes [J]. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2010, 112(1):24-42.

[9] Sparrowe RT, Liden RC, Wayne SJ, et al. Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2001, 44(2):316-325.

[10] Hopkins WE, Hopkins SA, Gross MA. Cultural diversity recomposition and effectiveness in monoculture work groups [J]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2005, 26(8):949-964.

[11] Gibson C, Vermeulen F. A healthy divide: Subgroups as a stimulus for team learning behavior [J]. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2003, 48(2):202-239.

[12] Li J, Hambrick DC. Factional groups: A new vantage on demographic faultlines, conflict, and disintegration in work [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2005, 48(5):794-813.

[13] Wit AP, Kerr NL. "Me versus just us versus us all": Categorization and cooperation in nested social dilemmas [J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, 83(3),616-637.

[14] Mackie DM, Devos T, Smith ER. Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context [J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 79(4):602-616.

[15] Chattopadhyay P. Beyond direct and symmetrical effects: The influence of demographic dissimilarity on organizational citizenship behavior [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 1999, 42(3):273-287.

[16] Kearney E, Gebert D. Managing diversity and enhancing team outcomes: The promise of transformational leadership [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2009, 94(1):77-89.

[17] Detert JR, Burris ER. Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2007, 50(4):869-884.

[18] Bass BM. Leadership and performance beyond expectations [M]. New York: Free Press, 1985.

[19] 魏峰,袁欣,邸杨.交易型领导、团队授权氛围和心理授权影响下属创新绩效的跨层次研究[J].管理世界,2009(4):135-142.

[20] Liao H, Rupp DE. The impact of justice climate and justice orientation on work outcomes: A cross-level multifoci framework [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2005, 90(2):242-256.

[21] 柯江林,孙健敏,石金涛等.人力资本、社会资本与心理资本对工作绩效的影响——总效应、效应差异及调节因素[J].管理工程学报,2010,24(4):29-35.

[22] Brass DJ. Being in the right place: A structural analysis of individual influence in an organization [J]. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1984, 29(4):518-539.

[23] Podolny JM, Baron JN. Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace [J]. American Sociological Review, 1997, 62(5):673-693.

[24] Ball R, Kothari SP, Watts RL. Economic determinants of the relation between earnings changes and stock returns [J]. Accounting Review, 1993, 68(3):622-638.

[25] Reagans R, Zuckerman E, McEvily B. How to make the team: Social networks vs. demography as criteria for designing effective teams [J]. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2004, 49(1):101-133.

[26] Jackson SE, Joshi A. Work team diversity [M].Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2011.

[27] Ibarra H. Race, opportunity, and diversity of social circles in managerial networks [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 1995, 38(3):673-703.

[28] Degenne A, Forsé M. Introducing social networks [M]. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1999.

[29] 姚俊. “关系”与“结构”的双层视角:一项工作绩效与社会网络关系的实证研究[J].社会,2009, 29(2):162-227.

[30] Shaw JB. The development and analysis of a measure of group faultlines [J]. Organizational Research Methods, 2004, 7(1):66-100.

[31] Bass BM, Avolio BJ. MLQ, multifactor leadership questionnaire sampler set: Technical report, leader form, rater form, and scoring key for MLQ form 5x-short [M]. Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden, 1995.

[32] Judge TA, Piccolo RF. Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2004, 89(5):755-768.

[33] 陈国权,赵晨.领导影响团队成员学习能力二维多层次模型的实证研究[J].管理工程学报,2010,24(4):1-12.

[34] James LR, Demaree RG, Wolf G. Rwg: An assessment of within-group interrater agreement [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1993, 78(2): 306-309

[35] James LR. Aggregation bias in estimates of perceptual agreement [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1982, 67(2):219-229.

[36] Schneider B, White SS, Paul MC. Linking service climate and customer perceptions of service quality: Tests of a causal model [J]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1998, 83(2):150-163.

[37] 福温星.阶层线性模型的原理与应用[M].北京:中国轻工业出版社,2009.

[38] Singer J D. Using sas proc mixed to fit multilevel models, hierarchical models, and individual growth models [J]. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 1998, 23(4):323-355.

[39] 温忠麟,侯杰泰,张雷.调节效应与中介效应的比较和应用[J].心理学报,2005,37 (2):268-274.

[40] Aiken LS, West SG. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions [M]. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991.

[41] Hofmann DA, Gavin MB. Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: Implications for research in organizations [J]. Journal of Management, 1998, 24(5):623-641.

[42] Bezrukova K, Jehn KA, Zanutto E, et al. Do faultlines hurt or help? Exploring distance, identity, task conflict, and individual performance in diverse groups[C], IACM 18TH Annual Conference, Netherlands , Amsterdam , 2005.

[43] Price KH, Shumate KM, Rowe NA, et al. The complementary effects of relational dissimilarity and group faultlines: A multi-level analysis of diversity [C]. Academy of Management meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 2007.

[44] Spell CS, Bezrukova K, Haar J, et al. Faultlines, fairness, and fighting: A justice perspective on conflict in diverse groups [J]. Small Group Research, 2011, 42(3), 309-340.