共享授权型领导对员工创新行为的影响:内部人身份感知的中介作用 本期目录 >>
Title: The Effect of Shared Empowering Leadership on Employee's Innovative Behavior:the Mediating Role of Perceived Insider Status
作者 苏屹;周文璐;崔明明;赵健宇
Author(s): su yi; zhou wen lu; cui ming ming; Zhao Jian yu
摘要: 员工是企业的核心,企业创新归根结底就是员工创新,促进员工的创新行为,提高企业的绩效是企业迅速发展的重中之重,而企业中高质量领导方式是推动员工创新行为的关键因素之一。共享授权型领导可以通过权力分享使员工产生更多的创新行为,以内部人身份感知作为中介变量,以员工的性别、婚姻状况和年龄段作为控制变量,研究共享授权型领导和员工创新行为之间的关系。以我国企业的员工作为研究样本,收集318份有效调查问卷,利用统计分析软件,对样本数据进行了描述性统计分析、正态分布检验、内部一致性分析、验证性因子分析和结构方程模型分析。实证研究结果表明,共享授权型领导对员工创新行为存在正向影响,内部人身份感知在这两个变量之间起到了部分中介作用,员工的性别、婚姻状况和年龄段会对共享授权型领导、内部人身份感知和员工创新行为产生不同的影响。从重视非正式领导风格、提升内部人身份感知和重视员工个体差异性三个方面提出相应的管理建议。
Abstract: Employees are the core resources of enterprises. The enterprise’s innovation depends on the employee’s innovative behavior. Therefore, how to effectively promote the employee’s innovative behavior is the most important issues to managers. Effective leadership style is the critical factor to inspire creative ideas of employees. Scholars found that leadership was a process of separation of powers. In the process of the power sharing, employee's collective ability and individual ability can be improved, and the work efficiency can be also increased. Shared empowering leadership, which claims every employee can be a leader, has a positive impact on employee’s outcomes. Scholars pay more attention to shared empowering leadership gradually. This paper examines the relationship between shared empowering leadership and employee’s innovative behavior. To further explicate the mechanism that shared empowering leadership influences employee’s innovative behavior, we introduce perceived insider status as a mediating variable. In addition, we take employee’s gender, marital status and age as control variables. Data were collected from employees who had immediate supervisor in Chinese companies. A total of 318 valid questionnaires were reserved through sifting. The analysis techniques include descriptive statistics, internal consistency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. The results of empirical research show that: first, shared empowering leadership has a significant positive effect on employee’s innovative behavior. This leadership style can not only inspire employees sparking innovative ideas, but also encourage them to put innovative ideas into practice. Second, the mediating test shows that perceived insider status acts as a incomplete mediating factor between shared empowering leadership and employee’s innovative behavior. Shared empowering leadership is able to enhance employee’s perceived insider status through self-management and mutually empowering. Employees, who are equipped with high quality of perceived insider status, have the sense of in-group member. These employees make organizational purpose their own duties and strive to create new ways for collective interests. Third, we also examine effects of demographic variables on perceived insider status and employee’s innovative behavior. The empirical results show that different employee’s genders, martial statuses and ages have different impacts on perceived insider status and employee’s innovative behavior. Our findings contribute to the practice of management in several ways. First, vertical leadership is the main style of leadership in China. With the improvement of cultural exchange between China and western countries, Chinese leaders have more access to western management thoughts. According to our empirical results, Chinese companies should pay more attention to informal leadership, especially shared empowering leadership, to improve the enterprise’s performance. Second, perceived insider status reflects an employee’s cognition of insiders in an organization. By way of self leadership and self management and self decision-making, shared empowering leadership allow employees to feel the value of their own in the work, and to set up the social emotional bonds. When facing difficulties, it can also make employees feel the leadership support and trust, and feel confidence to explore and inspire more innovative consciousness. Third, employees in different genders, marital statuses and ages may have different levels of perceived insider status and employee’s innovative behavior. Leaders should adopt diversity management according to followers’ demographic characteristics.
关键词: 共享授权型领导;内部人身份感知;员工创新行为;结构方程模型
Keywords: Shared empowering leadership; Perceived insider status; Employee’s innovative behavior; Structural equation modeling analysis
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目;国家社会科学基金重点项目;高等学校博士科学点专项科研基金资助项目;黑龙江省教育厅人文社会科学项目;中央高校基本科研费专项基金
发表期数: 2018年 第2期
中图分类号: 文献标识码: 文章编号:

[1] Yukl G. An Evaluative Essay on Current Conception of Effective Leadership [J].European ournal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1999, (8): 33-48.

[2] Brown M H and Hosking D M. Distributed Leadership and Skilled Performance as Successful organization in Social Movements [J]. Human Relations, 1986, 39(l): 65-79.

[3] Croueh A and Yetton P. The management team: An equilibrium model of manager and subordinate performance and behavior [A]. In Hunt J G, et al (Eds.), Emerging leadership vistas[C], 1998: 107-127. Lexington. MA: Lexington Nooks.

[4] Dachler H P. Commentary on refocusing leadership from a social systems perspective [A]. In Hunt J G, et al (Eds.), Leaders and managers: international perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership[C], 1984: 100-108. Pergamon Press, New York.

[5] Pearce C L and Sims H P. Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors [J]. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2002, 6(2): 172-197.

[6] Bennis W. Reinventing Leadership: Strategies to achieve a new style of leadership and empower your organisation[M]. Piatkus, 1997.

[7] Cox J F, et al. Toward a model of Shared Leadership and distributed influence in the innovation Process: How Shared Leadership can enhance New Product Development Team dynamics and effectiveness [A]. In Pearce C L and Conger J A (Eds.), Shared Leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership[C], 2003: 48-76. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[8] Sims H.P., Manz C. C. Company of Heroes: Unleashing the Power of Self-Leadership [M]. New York: Wiles, 1996.

[9] 梅会英. 共享领导风格对员工创新行为的影响机制研究[D]. 西南财经大学, 2011.

[10] 郑伯埙. 差序格局与华人组织行为[J]. 本土心理学研究, 1995, 3: 142-219.

[11] 胡蓉. 共享领导与团队创新绩效的关系研究[D].暨南大学,2013.

[12] Stamper C L, Masterson S S. Insider or outsider? How employee perceptions of insider status affect their work behavior[J]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2002, 23(8): 875-894.

[13] Farh J L, Cheng B S. A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations[J]. Management and organizations in the Chinese context, 2000: 84-127.

[14] Wang, H., Lee, C., & Hui, C. (2006). I want to be included: sources of perceived insider status and why insider status is important. Paper presented at Asia Academy of Management Conference, Tokyo.

[15] 尹俊,黄鸣鹏. 中国情境下组织内交换关系对员工绩效影响的对比研究[J]. 前沿理论, 2011, (37): 17-21.

[16] Chen Z. X., Aryee S. Delegation and Employee Work Outcomes: An Examination of the Cultural Context of Mediating Processes in China [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2007, 50(1): 226-238.

[17] Graham, J. W. An essay on organizational citizenship behavior [J]. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 1991, 4(4): 249–270.

[18] 苏屹,周文璐,吴雷. 共享型领导研究前沿探析与未来展望[J]. 管理现代化, 2013, (6):78-80.

[19] Conger J A, Kanungo R N. The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice [J]. Academy of management review, 1988: 471-482.

[20] Konczak L. J., Stelly D. J., Trusty M L. Defining and measuring empowering leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument [J]. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 2000, 60(2): 301-313.

[21] Scott S G, Bruce R A. Determinants of Innovative Behavior: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace [J]. Academy of Management Journal. 1994, 37(3): 580-607.

[22] Blau P M. Exchange and power in social life[M]. Transaction Publishers, 1964.

[23] Bass B M. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations [M]. New York: Free Press, 1985: 256.

[24] Zhang Y, Chen C C, Wang H. ‘Bounded empowerment: main and joint effects of supervisory power sharing and management control[J]. Academy of Management, Philadelphia. Introduction, 2007, 27.

[25] Amabile T. M, Conti R., Coon H., et al. Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity [J]. Academy of Management Journal. 1996, 39(5): 1154-1184.

[26] Masterson S. S. & Stamper C. L. Perceived Organization membership: An Aggregate Frame Work Representing the Employee-organization Relationship [J]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2003, 24: 473-490.

[27] Thomas, H.D.C. & Anderson, N. Changes in newcomers' psychological contracts during organizational socialization: a study of recruits entering the British Army [J]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1998, 19: 745-767.

[28] Grean G.B., UhI. Blen.M. Development of Leader-member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership Over 25 Years: Applying a Multi -level Multi-domain Prospective [J]. Leadership Quarterly, 1995, 6: 219-247.

[29] Hoch J E. Shared leadership and innovation: The role of vertical leadership and employee integrity[J]. Journal of Business and Psychology, 2013, 28(2): 159-174.

[30] 李燚,魏峰. 领导理论的演化和前沿进展[J]. 管理学报, 2010(4): 517-524.

[31] Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.R. & Tatham, R.L., et al. Multivariate Data Analysis[M], Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Prentice Hall, 1995: 24-55.

[32] Anderson, J.C., Gerbing D.W. Structural equation modeling in prentice: A review and recommended two-step approach [J]. Psychological Bulletin.1988, 103(3): 411-423.

[33] Hudson D, Seah L H, Hite D, et al. Telephone presurveys, self-selection, and non-response bias to mail and internet surveys in economic research[J]. Applied Economics Letters, 2004, 11(4): 237-240.

[34] Kline, R.B. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling [M]. New York: The Guilford Press, 1998.

[35] 卢纹岱. SPSS for Windows,统计分析[M]. 北京:电子工业出版社,2002.

[36] 吴明隆. 结构方程模型:AMOS的操作与应用[M]. 重庆:重庆大学出版社, 2009.

[37] Bollen, K.A. A new incremental fit index for general struetural equation models [J]. Sociological Methods and Research, 1989, 17: 303-316.

[38] Samuel B. Bacharach, Peter A. Bamberger&William J. Sonnenstuh. Work-related risk factors and employee problem drinking [J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2002, 45(4):637-658.

[39] 周浩, 龙立荣. 共同方法偏差的统计检验与控制方法[J]. 心理科学进展, 2004, 12(6): 942-950.

[40] 彭台光, 高月慈, 林钲琴. 管理研究中的共同方法变异\ 问题本质, 影响, 测试和补救 [J][J]. 管理学报, 2006, 23(1): 77-98.

[41] Podsakoff P M, MacKenzie S B, Lee J Y, et al. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies[J]. Journal of applied psychology, 2003, 88(5): 879.

[42] Baron R M & Kenny D A. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, 51: 1173-1182.

[43] Shin S J, Zhou J. Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea[J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2003, 46(6): 703-714.

[44] Burpitt W J, Bigoness W J. Leadership and innovation among teams The impact of empowerment[J]. Small group research, 1997, 28(3): 414-423.

[45] Wang H, Law K S, Hackett R D, et al. Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' performance and organizational citizenship behavior[J]. Academy of management Journal, 2005, 48(3): 420-432.

[46] 汪林, 储小平, 倪婧. 领导-部属交换, 内部人身份认知与组织公民行为——基于本土家族企业视角的经验研究[J]. 管理世界, 2009 (1): 97-107.

[47] Farh J L, Cheng B S. A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations[J]. Management and organizations in the Chinese context, 2000: 84-127.

[48] 黄玉凤. 家长式领导对下属工作创新行为的影响[D]. 上海:上海交通大学, 2012.

[49] Rhoades L, Eisenberger R, Armeli S. Affective commitment to the organization: the contribution of perceived organizational support[J]. Journal of applied psychology, 2001, 86(5): 825.

[50] Turner J C, Hogg M A, Oakes P J, et al. Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory[J]. Contemporary Sociology, 1987.

[51] 李政. 员工人际和谐观, 创新价值观及创新行为的关系研究 [D][D]. 重庆大学, 2007.

[52] 沈伊默, 袁登华, 张华, 等. 两种社会交换对组织公民行为的影响: 组织认同和自尊需要的不同作用[J]. 心理学报, 2009 (12): 1215-1227.

[53] 张勉, 李海, 魏钧, 等. 交叉影响还是直接影响? 工作—家庭冲突的影响机制[J]. 心理学报, 2011, 43(5): 573-588.

[54] Avey J B, Luthans F, Smith R M, et al. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time[J]. Journal of occupational health psychology, 2010, 15(1): 17.

[55] 谢俊, 储小平, 汪林. 效忠主管与员工工作绩效的关系: 反馈寻求行为和权力距离的影响[J]. 南开管理评论, 2012 (2): 31-38.